Suncoast Perfusion Services

Bloodborne Pathogen Training

*                                                                                                                                       December 2013

*                   Bloodborne  Pathogens  Training

*      Directions: Please read over the following material and take the quiz.

*     

*      *The NHRC Department of Respiratory Disease Research

*      requires that all personnel, both onsite and offsite, who

*      work with patient specimens or have patient contact,

*      receive bloodborne pathogen training. Bloodborne pathogen

*      training is a critical component of laboratory safety and must

*      be completed upon orientation and followed by subsequent

*      annual refresher courses. The following training is in

*      compliance with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

*      (29 CFR 1910.1030) and will be used as our annual refresher

*      course. Upon completion of this training, you will be required to

*      take a quiz.

*     

*     

*     

*      Introduction:

*     

*       Needle sticks and other sharps injuries are a major healthcare

*      industry concern. In 1991, OSHA created Bloodborne

*      Pathogen Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030 which combined

*      engineering and work practice controls, training, and other

*      factors to minimize transmission of bloodborne pathogens in

*      the workplace.

*       In November of 2000, the Needlestick Safety and Prevention

*      Act was passed by Congress.

*       It is estimated that up to 800,000 needle stick infections

*      occur yearly

*     

*      Bloodborne Diseases

*       Bloodborne pathogens are pathogenic microorganisms

*      (e.g. viruses, bacteria, or parasites) that may be present in

*      human blood and can cause disease in humans.

*       There are several bloodborne diseases that you could be

*      exposed to on the job. The most significant are:

*       Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

*       Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

*       Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

*     

*      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

*       HIV attacks the body’s immune system and may cause

*      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

*       Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV.

*       Needle sticks are a rare cause of occupational HIV

*      transmission (.04% of people are infected in the workplace).

*      It is still important to be careful when working with needles

*      because HIV can lead to AIDS which is fatal.

*     

*      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV):

*      A person with HIV may:

*       Carry the virus without developing symptoms for many years.

*       Develop AIDS, or AIDS-related symptoms including:

*      neurological problems, cancer, and other opportunistic

*      infections.

*       Suffer from flu-like symptoms, fever, diarrhea, and fatigue as

*      well as weakness, sore-throat, white coating on the tongue,

*      weight loss, and swollen lymph glands.

*     

*      Hepatitis B (HBV)

*       Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.”

*       HBV is a major bloodborne hazard that infects approximately

*      8,700 healthcare workers a year, resulting in more than

*      200 deaths.

*       There is a vaccine available to prevent HBV.

*       Blood to blood transmission is the most common form of HBV

*      infection.

*      If someone becomes infected with HBV he/she:

*       May not develop symptoms for up to 9 months.

*       May suffer from symptoms such as fatigue, stomach pain,

*      jaundice, and darkened urine.

*       HBV may severely damage the liver, causing cirrhosis and

*      sometimes death

*     

*      Hepatitis C (HCV)

*       HCV is the most common bloodborne infection in the US,

*      infecting more than 4 million Americans, most of which are

*      unaware that they are infected. As many as 2.7 – 10% of

*      new HCV cases are occupationally acquired.

*       HCV is a potentially fatal bloodborne virus that can lead to

*      liver failure or cancer.

*       There is no vaccine against HCV.

*       Symptoms include: Jaundice, fatigue, darkened urine,

*      abdominal pain, and loss of appetite or nausea, although

*      many people remain asymptomatic.

*     

*      Modes of Transmission

*      HIV, HBV, and HCV are transmitted through blood or other

*      bodily fluid. This includes:

*       Semen

*       Vaginal secretions

*       Saliva

*       Cerebrospinal fluid

*       Amniotic fluid

*       Peritoneal fluid

*       Pleural fluid

*       Synovial fluid

*       Any fluid that is contaminated with blood

*     

*      Vehicles of Transmission

*      Bloodborne pathogens may enter the body and infect a person

*      through a variety of means including:

*       Hypodermic Needles

*       Sexual Contact

*       Accidental puncture with contaminated needles, broken glass

*      or any other sharp object that can pierce skin.

*       Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected bodily

*      fluids.

*       Indirect transmission such as touching a contaminated object

*      to your mouth, eyes, nose, or other mucous membranes.

*     

*      Universal Precautions

*       HIV, HBV, and HCV infect people of all ages, socioeconomic

*      classes, race, and background. This means you cannot

*      identify every patient who may transmit the infection.

*       Universal precautions resolve this uncertainty by requiring

*      you to treat all human blood and bodily fluids as if they were

*      known to be infected.

*     

*      Respiratory Pathogens

*       It is possible that you may be exposed to respiratory

*      pathogens, such as M. tuberculosis (TB) and B. pertussis,

*      at this workplace.

*       Although we do not culture TB, we do process throat cultures

*      which could be infected.

*       Once a year, every employee must get a PPD skin test to

*      check for the presence of TB.

*       The greatest potential for B. pertussis and other respiratory

*      pathogen infection is through aerosol generation during the

*      manipulation of cultures.

*     

*      Respiratory Pathogens:

*      Reducing the Risk

*      Workers may be protected from Respiratory Pathogens by:

*       Using careful work practices

*       Having good personal hygiene

*      (gowns, gloves, hand washing)

*       Using engineering controls (hoods)

*       Receipt of an annual influenza vaccination

*     

*      Reducing Your Risk

*      There are five major tactics to help reduce your risk of exposure

*      and infection:

*      1. Work Practices & Personal Hygiene

*      2. Personal Protective Equipment

*      3. Engineering Controls

*      4. Good Housekeeping

*      5. Hepatitis B Vaccine

*     

*      Work Practices

*       If you come in contact with infectious materials, wash the

*      exposed area immediately in order to lessen the chance of

*      becoming infected.

*       In laboratory and patient care areas you should wash your

*      hands frequently, including when you:

*       Remove your gloves

*       Come in contact with blood or other bodily fluids

*       Change workstations

*       Enter a “clean” area

*     

*      To Avoid Needle Sticks

*       Use a needle with Engineered Sharps

*      Injury Protection (SESIP) attached to

*      the blood tube holder and dispose of

*      the entire unit into a sharps container.

*       Do not bend, break, and NEVER re-cap needles.

*       Do not remove contaminated needles from blood tube

*      following a blood draw.

*       Place contaminated sharps in an

*      appropriate puncture-resistant container.

*     

*      Code Regulations

*      Code 1910.1030 requires you to:

*       Keep a confidential sharps injury log.

*       Use the most up to date safety needles which are appropriate

*      for your workplace.

*       Involve employees in choosing the needle safety devices.

*       Have a yearly re-examination of your exposure control plan.

*     

*      Sharps Disposal Containers

*      Sharps disposal containers should be:

*       Functional – durable, closeable, leak and puncture resistant

*       Accessible – close to where work is being done

*       Visible – properly labeled and color coded

*       Accommodating – conveniently located and easy to reach with

*      an opening large enough for both the needle and SESIP

*     

*      Handling Sharps

*       Do not overfill the sharps containers. Fill only to the

*      indicated line or ¾ (75%) of the container, whichever comes first.

*       Never reach into any container that is used for sharps.

*       Place leaking or punctured sharps containers inside a

*      secondary container to prevent further leakage.

*       Always use a utensil (tongs, dustpan, etc.) to pick up

*      contaminated broken glass, needles, or other sharps.

*       Assume all used needles and other sharps are contaminated

*     

*      Personal Hygiene

*      Other precautions to protect yourself include:

*       Always minimize splashing, spraying, and spattering.

*       Do not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics,

*      or handle contact lenses where you may

*      potentially be exposed to infectious materials.

*       Never pipette or use suction by mouth!

*       Don’t store food or drinks where blood and

*      other infectious materials may be present.

*       Avoid petroleum-based lubricants because they can eat away

*      at latex gloves. Hand cream is okay, but only after you have

*      thoroughly washed your hands.

*     

*      Personal Protective Equipment

*      Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) protects you from contact

*      with potentially infectious materials. PPE includes:

*       Masks/Eye Protection: always use when

*      you perform procedures likely to generate

*      splashes of blood or other bodily fluids.

*       Gowns/Coats: use for procedures likely to

*      generate splashes of blood or other bodily fluids.

*       Gloves: always use before touching or if likely

*      to come in contact with blood, bodily fluids,

*      non-intact skin, mucous membranes, and when

*      performing venipuncture.

*       PPE should be worn at all times in the operating room except in

*      approved “clean areas”.

*       PPE should never be worn outside of the area of potential

*      exposure.

*       Contaminated PPE must be taken care of appropriately

*      by either disposing, decontaminating, or laundering it.

*     

*      Gloves

*       Gloves are a very important way of protecting yourself.

*       Always use latex or approved non-latex gloves.

*       Always check the gloves for holes before putting them on.

*       There are also specific rules to be followed for glove removal:

*       With both hands gloved, peel one glove off from wrist to fingers

*      and hold it in the gloved hand.

*       With the exposed hand, peel the second glove from the inside,

*      tucking the first glove inside the second.

*       Immediately dispose of both gloves in a bio-hazardous materials

*      container.

*       Wash your hands thoroughly.

*     

*      Engineering Controls

*      Engineering Controls are the primary means of minimizing or

*      eliminating employee exposure to BBP and include the use of

*      safer medical devices. Some examples are:

*       Self-sheathing needles

*       Sharps disposal containers

*       Bio-hazardous waste bags

*       Biological Safety Hoods

*       Autoclaves

*     

*      Good Housekeeping

*      Good Housekeeping means using your common sense and

*      knowledge to keep your work areas clean and to protect

*      yourself and your colleagues. General rules are:

*       Clean and decontaminate all equipment and surfaces at

*      the end of each shift using an appropriate decontaminant.

*       Replace protective coverings on equipment

*       Place contaminated sharps into the proper

*      leak-proof containers.

*       Please read and follow all biohazard labels.

*       Always dispose of hazardous materials (including sharps)

*      in the proper RED (NOT orange) container or bag.

*     

*      HBV Vaccination

*       If your occupation has the potential for HBV exposure, your

*      employer will offer the vaccine at no cost to you.

*       The vaccine is administered in three injections: one at

*      employment start, one at three month, the final at

*      six months. A post vaccination serology test (titer) should

*      be scheduled to check antibody levels.

*       All three injections must be received for the vaccine to be

*      effective.

*       Today’s vaccines are safe and are 85-97% effective.

*       

*      Exposure Incident Procedures

*       An exposure incident is a spill, splash, needle stick, ingestion,

*      or accident, in which you have direct and unprotected contact

*      with human blood, fluids, or tissue.

*       In the event of an exposure incident an

*      employee should:

*       Wash or flush the area immediately.

*       Notify the employee’s supervisor.

*       Seek further medical treatment as necessary.

*       Ensure the incident is reported to your employer.

*       REMEMBER: Report an exposure incident as soon as

*      possible

*     

*      Specific Exposure Procedures

*       Contaminated skin: scrub and soak the area for

*      at least 10 minutes using a providone iodine solution

*      (e.g. Betadine) and water.

*       Percutaneous injury (needle stick, cut, wound, etc.):

*      Vigorously scrub and soak the area for at least

*      20 minutes with a Betadine solution and water

*      before seeking additional treatment.

*       Mucous Membrane: Flush any exposed area for

*      at least 15 minutes at an emergency eyewash

*      station before seeking additional treatment.

*     

*      Emergency Procedures

*       In case of an emergency, contact Robby or Raelene as soon as possible.

*       All treatments of work-related injuries will be paid for by

*      your employer.

*                               Bloodborne  Pathogen  QUIZ

*     

*      Circle The Best Response

*     

*      In what year was the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act passed by Congress?

*      a. 1998

*      b. 2000 

*      c. 2001

*      d. 2003

*      e. 2004

*     

*      Hepatitis refers the inflammation of the:

*      a. heart

*      b. lungs

*      c. liver

*      d. kidneys

*      e. intestines

*                 

*      The most significant bloodborne diseases are:

*      a. HIV

*      b. HBV

*      c. HCV

*      d. All of the above

*     

*      HCV is a potentially fatal virus that can lead to:

*      a. liver disease

*      b. liver disease and cancer

*      c. HIV

*      d. HBV

*     

*      In the event of an exposure incident, the employee should

*      a. Report the incident as soon as possible

*      b. Wash of flush the area immediately

*      c. Notify the employee’s supervisor as soon as possible

*      d. Seek further medical care as needed

*      e. All of the above

*     

*      What type of PPE are we required to use while dealing with blood:

*      a. gloves

*      b. masks including eye protections

*      c  shoe covers

*      d. gowns

*      e. a,b,c,

*      f. all of the above

*     

*      A sharps container shall never be filled more than:

*      a. 60% full

*      b. 75% full

*      c.  80% full

*      d. It can filled up as long as the safety guard can still be locked in place

*     

*      What is  a symptom of the HIV virus?

*      a. unexpected weigh gain

*      b. coughing up blood

*      c. white coating on the tongue

*      d. muscle tremors

*      It is estimated that how many needle sticks occur yearly?

*      a. 500,000

*      b.800,000

*      c. 700,000

*      d. 250,000

September 30, 2017

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Raelene Totterdale President and CEO co-founded Suncoast Perfusion Services in 1998. She is currently a member of the AABB and President of The National Board Of Perioperative Blood Management Read More

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